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Memory based on the storage of charge in a capacitor, dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is also widely used.) The design process for digital circuits is fundamentally different from the process for analog circuits. Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices. In digital electronic circuits, electric signals take on discrete values, to represent logical and numeric values.[3] These values represent the information that is being processed. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right. In a series circuit, the same current passes through a series of components.

Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a regular working system. Wires are treated as transmission lines, with (hopefully) constant characteristic impedance, and the impedances at the start and end determine transmitted and reflected waves on the line. In industry, companies working in the leading edge may be considered high-tech societies along with its main competitors, regarding the rest of the sectorial competition.

Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. Products currently considered high tech are often those that incorporate advanced computer electronics. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components. Each logic gate regenerates the binary signal, so the designer need not account for distortion, gain control, offset voltages, and other concerns faced in an analog design. Like Big Science, high technology is an international phenomenon, spanning continents, epitomized by the worldwide communication of the Internet. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Thus a multinational corporation might work on a project 24 hours a day, with teams waking and working with the advance of the sun across the globe; such projects might be in software development or in the development of an integrated circuit. Transistors interconnected so as to provide positive feedback are used as latches and flip flops, circuits that have two or more metastable states, and remain in one of these states until changed by an external input. Wires are usually treated as ideal zero-voltage interconnections; any resistance or reactance is captured by explicitly adding a parasitic element, such as a discrete resistor or inductor.